Arab Today, arab today us marks 150th anniversary of major civil war clash
Last Updated : GMT 20:43:23
Arab Today, arab today
Arab Today, arab today

US marks 150th anniversary of major Civil War clash

Arab Today, arab today

Arab Today, arab today US marks 150th anniversary of major Civil War clash

Manassas - AFP

Americans this weekend mark the 150th anniversary of the first major battle in their bitter 1861-1865 civil war, an engagement that both sides thought would result in a quick victory but instead shocked the public with its high casualty rate. Historians have described the July 21, 1861 Confederate victory as the end of American innocence, when the young nation faced a war that threatened its very existence. War broke out in April 1861 soon after 11 southern states formed the Confederate States of America. The agricultural south relied heavily on slaves to work their rich cotton plantations and feared the new US president, Abraham Lincoln, would eventually set them free. How to deal with slavery had been an unsolved problem since the start of the nation -- the 1776 Declaration of Independence after all claimed that \"all men are created equal\" -- and reached a boiling point with Lincoln\'s election. Lincoln declared the split a \"rebellion\", and in April began to form a large army to preserve the Union. Fearing other states could also leave, Lincoln did not declare an end to slavery until 1863, well into the war. The southerners were certain they could quickly capture Washington, while northerners believed they could easily take the Confederate capital of Richmond, a mere 100 miles (160 kilometers) to the south in Virginia. \"It was America\'s baptism by fire, where naive, romantic ideals of warfare came to an abrupt end,\" said Henry Elliott, a historian with the National Park Service, on a recent tour of the Manassas battlefield. \"The battle ended any notion that the war would be quickly decided.\" Enthusiastic, ill-trained soldiers rushed to the US capital wearing flashy uniforms often supplied by their states. Some wore Scottish kilts, while others dressed like French Zouave soldiers. Gray and blue uniforms abounded. The pressure for quick action was enormous. \"The Nation\'s War-Cry! Forward to Richmond!\" screamed the New York Tribune in a June headline. \"Why is Richmond not taken? Why is not our army moving southward ... scattering the hosts of treason before it like dead leaves?\" added the Freedom\'s Champion newspaper from Atchison, Kansas in mid-July. Union commander Irvin McDowell warned his untested soldiers were not ready. \"You are green, it is true,\" Lincoln reportedly told him. \"But they are also green. You agree green alike.\" In July a Union army of 30,000 finally headed west from Washington aiming to capture a key railroad junction in Manassas, and then move on Richmond. A slightly smaller Confederate force lined up at Bull Run, a shallow creek with steep banks ideal for defense, to stop them. McDowell\'s plan was to feint an attack on the main Confederate line, then swing his troops around their lines in a surprise maneuver. Union soldiers however got lost in a long pre-dawn march early July 21, and by the time they were ready to attack the Confederates were waiting. \"It was a whirlwind of bullets,\" a Confederate survivor later wrote. \"Our men fell constantly. The deadly missives rained like hail among the boughs and trees.\" The cannonade and gunfire was so intense that Sunday churchgoers in downtown Washington, some 30 miles (48 kilometers) to the east, mistook the noise for thunder. In the days before smokeless gunpowder, battles were loud, confusing affairs, and battlefields were often shrouded in acrid black smoke, leading even the best trained soldiers astray. The outnumbered southerners resisted, but by midday on July 21 had taken heavy casualties and were forced to fall back on a hill. \"Victory! The day is ours!\" cried out McDowell as he visited advancing troops, who cheered wildly at seeing their commander. The exhausted Union soldiers paused to wait for rear units to arrive for a final attack. This gave news reporters time to rush off to file stories. \"We have carried the day. The rebels... are totally routed,\" the New York Herald reporter telegraphed his editors. In New York, where competition among the city\'s 18 dailies was ferocious, the late editions announced a great Union victory that same afternoon. A cluster of civilians, including US senators and members of Congress, had gathered on a nearby hill and had a picnic as they watched the battle. \"The spectators were all excited, and a lady with an opera glass who was near me was quite beside herself when an unusually heavy discharge roused the current of her blood,\" wrote London Times correspondent William Howard Russell. The afternoon clash was ferocious. A New York soldier wrote that the bullets \"came crashing through the cornfield, singing and whistling around our ears, making the air blue and sulfurous with smoke.\" After hours of intense combat, fresh southern reinforcements arrived. The Union soldiers wavered, panicked and broke, fleeing in disorder. On their rush back to Washington they got caught up with the civilians also rushing home. In the evening, when a New York Times reporter tried to file an update to his earlier \"victory\" story, the military censor closed the telegraph office. Protests broke out in northern cities when the extent of the defeat was finally learned. There were 5,000 casualties that day, an astonishing high rate for the period -- yet small compared to the 23,000 killed one year later in a second battle also fought at Manassas. By the time the war ended in 1865 more than 600,000 soldiers had been killed. \"I had a dim notion about the \'romance\' of a soldier\'s life. I have bravely got over it since,\" a Union soldier who fought at Manassas wrote in a letter home.

arabstoday
arabstoday

Name *

E-mail *

Comment Title*

Comment *

: Characters Left

Mandatory *

Terms of use

Publishing Terms: Not to offend the author, or to persons or sanctities or attacking religions or divine self. And stay away from sectarian and racial incitement and insults.

I agree with the Terms of Use

Security Code*

Arab Today, arab today us marks 150th anniversary of major civil war clash Arab Today, arab today us marks 150th anniversary of major civil war clash

 



Name *

E-mail *

Comment Title*

Comment *

: Characters Left

Mandatory *

Terms of use

Publishing Terms: Not to offend the author, or to persons or sanctities or attacking religions or divine self. And stay away from sectarian and racial incitement and insults.

I agree with the Terms of Use

Security Code*

Arab Today, arab today us marks 150th anniversary of major civil war clash Arab Today, arab today us marks 150th anniversary of major civil war clash

 



Arab Today, arab today
Arab Today, arab today Youssra depended on colored foam

GMT 16:53 2017 Tuesday ,05 September

Youssra depended on colored foam
Arab Today, arab today A no-frills business success

GMT 07:00 2017 Wednesday ,20 September

A no-frills business success
Arab Today, arab today Etiquette expert underlines importance of gifts

GMT 17:52 2017 Sunday ,03 September

Etiquette expert underlines importance of gifts
Arab Today, arab today Israel sees benefits in independent Kurdistan

GMT 07:58 2017 Wednesday ,20 September

Israel sees benefits in independent Kurdistan
Arab Today, arab today Saudi Arabia to unblock internet calling apps

GMT 11:31 2017 Wednesday ,20 September

Saudi Arabia to unblock internet calling apps
Arab Today, arab today
Arab Today, arab today
Arab Today, arab today Ministry seeks to improve education

GMT 14:49 2017 Sunday ,17 September

Ministry seeks to improve education
Arab Today, arab today New Zealand opposition looks

GMT 10:35 2017 Thursday ,14 September

New Zealand opposition looks
Arab Today, arab today Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands brace

GMT 12:01 2017 Wednesday ,20 September

Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands brace
Arab Today, arab today The history of solar eclipses

GMT 05:16 2017 Sunday ,20 August

The history of solar eclipses
Arab Today, arab today Intel chips loaded in Waymo

GMT 14:43 2017 Wednesday ,20 September

Intel chips loaded in Waymo
Arab Today, arab today Five trends at the Frankfurt auto show

GMT 12:04 2017 Monday ,18 September

Five trends at the Frankfurt auto show
Arab Today, arab today Horia Farghaly happy for success of “Case G”

GMT 12:14 2017 Monday ,18 September

Horia Farghaly happy for success of “Case G”
Arab Today, arab today France hopeful of persuading Trump

GMT 06:21 2017 Wednesday ,20 September

France hopeful of persuading Trump

GMT 06:31 2017 Saturday ,16 September

Eman Al Assy receives three offers

GMT 05:05 2017 Tuesday ,12 September

Pregnant woman's suicide roils China

GMT 16:53 2017 Saturday ,02 September

Mai importance of gifts during Eid Al-Adha

GMT 19:18 2017 Monday ,18 September

5,000 'Dieselgate' deaths in Europe per year

GMT 10:46 2017 Saturday ,05 August

Nanis reveals simple ideas for home renovation

GMT 04:26 2017 Wednesday ,20 September

Opioid overdose deaths take 2.5 months

GMT 11:40 2017 Monday ,18 September

Russia and Iraq restore air travel

GMT 17:12 2017 Monday ,07 August

Al-Shawaifi reveals secrets of total solar eclipse

GMT 12:56 2017 Friday ,15 September

Apple's grand plan in Ireland held up by a forest

GMT 11:37 2017 Saturday ,12 August

Fashion designer reveals her new collection
Arab Today, arab today
Arab Today, arab today
 
 Arab Today Facebook,arab today facebook  Arab Today Twitter,arab today twitter Arab Today Rss,arab today rss  Arab Today Youtube,arab today youtube  Arab Today Youtube,arab today youtube
arabstoday arabstoday arabstoday arabstoday
arabstoday arabstoday arabstoday
arabstoday
بناية النخيل - رأس النبع _ خلف السفارة الفرنسية _بيروت - لبنان
arabstoday, Arabstoday, Arabstoday