The Higher Education Institutions affiliating to the Government of Dubai will have their academic, or professional or applied programmes subjected to the Dubai Executive Council resolution No. 21 for year 2011, on the higher education, in accordance with the decree issued by His Highness Shaikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum, Vice-President and Prime Minister of the UAE and Ruler of Dubai. The first article of the decree issued by Shaikh Mohammed in his capacity as the Ruler of the Emirate of Dubai, has delegated powers to the Knowledge and Human Development Authority in Dubai (KHDA), to subject any of the academic, or professional or applied programmes of any educational institution affiliated to the Dubai government to the resolution of the Dubai Executive Council No. 21 for the year 2011, on the higher education institutions in the Dubai free zones. While the second article of the decree, states that the certificates issued by educational institutions referred to in the first article, which are ratified by the KHDA are recongised and binding by all public and private entities in the Emirate of Dubai for all purposes. This resolution is effective from the date of issuance and shall be published in the Official Gazette. The Knowledge and Human Development Authority (KHDA) is a regulatory authority of the Government of Dubai and is responsible for the growth, direction and quality of private education and learning in Dubai.